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Armand-Emmanuel de Vignerot du Plessis, Duc de Richelieu

Duc de Richelieu was a prominent statesman during the Bourbon Restoration (1814-1815). Afterwards, he was Prime Minister of France twice and succeeded Talleyrand. During his first Prime Ministership, he attended the Congress of Aix-La-Chapelle as France’s representative. Owing to his efforts, France was quickly relieved of the Allied occupying forces, a decision reached at that Congress. Richelieu had pledged to the Allied Powers to interfere if an internal revolution were to take place, which helped to achieve the elevation of the Allied occupation. Richelieu also succeeded in having France admitted to the table as a full discussion partner in the European Congress System, restoring France’s position as a European power. At the Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle, the issue of the Barbary Regencies was also discussed. The question on the table was to whether undertake expeditions to the Regencies as these might inflict damage upon the relations with the Ottoman Empire. Richelieu, despite expressing his concerns over the potential impact on the integrity of the Ottoman Empire, he agreed to a diplomatic expedition with Great Britain to the Regencies, as well as concerted measures with the other Great Powers. De Richelieu’s second term as Prime Minister was only brief, spanning from February to December 1821. Richelieu resigned due to political attacks from both the Liberals and the Ultras.

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